Drug Discov Ther. 2012;6(5):269-277. (DOI: 10.5582/ddt.2012.v6.5.269)
Development of an osmotic pump system for controlled delivery of diclofenac sodium.
Emara LH, Taha NF, Badr RM, Mursi NM
Based on an elementary osmotic pump, controlled release systems of diclofenac sodium (DS) were designed to deliver the drug in a zero-order release pattern. Osmotic pump tablets containing 100 mg DS were prepared and coated with either semipermeable (SPM) or microporous (PM) membranes. The tablet coats were composed of hydrophobic triacetin (TA) or hydrophilic polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400) incorporated in cellulose acetate (CA) solution, for SPM and PM, respectively. Variable tablet core compositions such as swelling polymers (PEO and HPMC) and osmotic agents (lactose, NaCl, and KCl) were studied. An optimized, sensitive and well controlled in vitro release design, based on the flow-through cell (FTC), was utilized to discriminate between preparations. The results revealed that the presence of PEG 400 in the coating membrane accelerated the drug release rate, while TA suppressed the release rate of DS. In the case of SPM, the amount of DS released was inversely proportional to the membrane thickness, where 5% (w/w) weight gain gave a higher DS release rate than 10% (w/w). Results of different tablet core compositions revealed that the release rate of DS decreased as PEO molecular weight increased. HPMC K15M showed the lowest DS release rate. The presence of lactose, KCl, or NaCl pronouncedly affected DS release rate depending on polymer type in the core. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed formation of pores in the membrane that accounts for faster DS release rate. These results revealed that DS could be formulated as an osmotic pump system with a prolonged, zero-order release pattern.