Drug Discov Ther. 2012;6(1):9-17. (DOI: 10.5582/ddt.2012.v6.1.9)

Synthesis of solasodine glycoside derivatives and evaluation of their cytotoxic effects on human cancer cells.

Cui CZ, Wen XS, Cui M, Gao J, Sun B, Lou HX


Solasodine glycosides, such as solamargine, have been proved to be very important anti-cancer agents. In order to discover more potent cytotoxic agents and explore the preliminary structure activity relationship, a new series of solasodine glycosides 2-9 were synthesized via a transglycosylation strategy, and their cytotoxic activity against a panel of human cancer cell lines (MCF-7, KB, K562, and PC3 cells) were evaluated by MTT assays. The results indicated that compounds 2, 8, and 9 with the substitute moiety of rhamnose, 2-hydroxyethoxymethyl, and 1,3-dihydroxypropan-2-yloxy-methyl, respectively, exhibited quite strong anticancer activity. The underlying mechanism tests demonstrated that these compounds could induce apoptosis detected by DAPI staining, and Annexin V and propidium iodide binding. Cell cycle analysis indicated that the cancer cells were predominantly arrested at the G2/M phase when exposure to these compounds was examined by flow cytometry. These compounds may serve as lead candidates in the development of novel chemotherapeutics for cancer treatment.

KEYWORDS: Saponins, solasodine, cytotoxicity, apoptosis

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