Drug Discov Ther. 2011;5(1):26-31. (DOI: 10.5582/ddt.v5.1.26)
Anti-influenza viral effects of novel nuclear export inhibitors from Valerianae Radix and Alpinia galanga.
Watanabe K, Takatsuki H, Sonoda M, Tamura S, Murakami N, Kobayashi N
Many pathogenic viruses, such as the influenza virus and the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-1, are a threat to humans, thus leading to thousands of deaths annually. The development of antiviral drugs is urgent, and it is an essential strategy for the suppression of these infectious diseases. However, regardless of the rapid emergence of many infectious diseases, the development of novel antiviral drugs has been slow, except for the case of the AIDS. In addition, several viruses can easily mutate and escape the inhibitory activity of anti-viral drugs. It was already well-established that HIV escapes from anti-viral drug effects because of the lack of proofreading activity in its reverse transcriptase. It is known that the influenza virus, which is resistant to Tamiflu, is already spread all over the world. Viruses utilize the host cell environment and cellular factors to propagate. Therefore, the development of novel drugs which inhibit viral protein-host protein interactions or cellular functions appear to be good candidates. The influenza virus is unique in replicating in host nuclei, and we therefore focused on the nuclear export processes for the development of anti-influenza viral drugs. We previously reported that leptomycin B (LMB), which inhibited the nuclear export processes via the nuclear export signal (NES) inhibited the nuclear export of influenza viral RNP (vRNP), and resulted in the inhibition of influenza viral propagation. We herein examined novel CRM1 inhibitors, valtrate from Valerianae Radix, and 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA) from Alpinia galanga as potent inhibitors for the influenza virus replication.