Drug Discov Ther. 2018;12(1):21-30. (DOI: 10.5582/ddt.2017.01068)

Anesthetic activity of plant essential oils on Cyprinus carpio (koi carp).

Khumpirapang N, Pikulkaew S, Anuchapreeda S, Okonogi S


The aims of this study were to investigate the anesthetic and cytotoxic effects of essential oils (EOs) of Ocimum basilicum (OBO), O. canum (OCO), and O. sanctum (OSO) on Cyprinus carpio (koi carp). For anesthetic effect, induction time to surgical anesthesia and recovery time were determined. For cytotoxicity effect, viability of fish peripheral blood nuclear cells (PBMCs) was investigated. Results indicated that increasing oil concentration caused significant (p < 0.01) decrease of induction time. OSO at 100, 200, and 300 mg/L gave the induction time of 169.5 ± 10.2, 62.8 ± 2.3, 45.3 ± 2.2 sec, respectively, significantly shorter than OCO, and OBO. The recovery time of anesthetized fish was dose dependent (p <0.01). Among them, OCO showed the longest recovery time of 313.0 ± 8.1, 420.7 ± 12.6, 616.6 ± 12.1 sec for concentrations of 100, 200, and 300 mg/L, respectively, followed by OSO and OBO, respectively. Within 10 min contact time of the EOs and fish PBMCs, the fish PBMC viability was higher than 80%. Increase contact time and EO concentration caused an increase in cytotoxicity to fish PBMC. OBO showed less toxic than OSO and OCO. Based on the desired induction and recovery times for anesthetizing koi carp, OBO, OCO, and OSO at 300, 200, and 100 mg/L, respectively were suggested to be the most suitable. It was concluded that OBO, OCO, and OSO can be used as natural anesthetics for fish.

KEYWORDS: Anesthetic activity, cytotoxicity, Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum canum, Ocimum sanctum

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