Drug Discov Ther. 2017;11(4):181-185. (DOI: 10.5582/ddt.2017.01029)
Nanoemulsion: A suitable nanodelivery system of clove oil for anesthetizing Nile tilapia.
Kheawfu K, Pikulkaew S, Chaisri W, Okonogi S
Clove oil ethanolic solution (CL-EtOH) have always been used for fish anesthesia. However, ethanol causes major side effect of fish hypersensivity. In this study, clove oil loaded nanoemulsion (CLN) was developed in order to enhance water miscibility of clove oil without using ethanol in the preparations. The obtained CLN was characterized in terms of droplet size, size distribution expressed as polydispersity index (PDI), and zeta potential. The anesthetic effect of CLN in comparison with CL-EtOH on Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia) was investigated. The results showed that the best CLN was composed of 20% w/w clove oil and 15% w/w polysorbate 20. This CLN has internal droplet size of 63.2 ± 1.0 nm, PDI of 0.31 ± 0.04, and zeta potential of – 30.3 ± 8.1 mV. GC-MS analysis indicated that eugenol was the main compound in clove oil. It was found that the induction time to anesthesia for Nile tilapia that received this CLN was shorter than that received CL-EtOH at the same eugenol concentration. The results of this study showed the potential of nanoemulsion on water miscible and efficacy enhancing of clove oil without using ethanol. The obtained CLN from this study is a promising formulation for fish aquaculture where fish sedation is required.