Drug Discov Ther. 2017;11(2):91-97. (DOI: 10.5582/ddt.2017.01008)
Ultrastructural and physico-chemical characterization of saliva during menstrual cycle in perspective of ovulation in human.
Saibaba G, Srinivasan M, Aarthy AP, Silambarasan V, Archunan G
Human saliva is a potential diagnostic fluid and any alteration in body might be reflected in saliva so that saliva is considered as "mirror of the body". Variations in salivary hormone level, ultra structure, pH, flow rate, buffering capacity and electrolytes level are found during menstrual cycle in regard to ovulation. Thirty healthy volunteers were used for the assessment of physico-chemical changes in saliva. Reproductive cycle was categorized as pre-ovulation phase (5 to 12 days), ovulation phase (13 or 14 days) and post-ovulation phase (15 to 25 days) according to salivary arborization test and hormonal analysis. Estradiol and luteinizing hormone was gradually increased and attained peak at the level of 2.28 ± 0.20 pg/mL and 1.35 ± 0.41 mIU/mL respectively during the ovulation phase. The electrolytes result clearly indicates that the influx of common electrolytes is important for crystallization and help to induce clear ferning pattern in ovulation phase. Sodium (Na) and chloride (Cl) were found to be high during ovulation phase only. Average salivary pH was 7.5, 7.1, and 7.3 during ovulation, pre- and post-ovulation phases respectively. Buffering capacity of saliva was normal during pre- and post- ovulation phases. In contrast, in ovulation phase the buffer capacity was slightly higher. At the first time, the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies revealed the ultra structure difference of saliva during menstrual cycle. During ovulation phase a compact network-shaped mesh was appeared; such structure was not appeared in pre- and post-ovulation phases. Additionally, we observed the saliva is arrayed as a fine mosaic-like structure during ovulation. Based on physico-chemical properties and hormonal levels may lead to develop a detection kit/sensor for detecting the ovulation phase in human.